My Illlustrated Travel Journal with Essays about Roman and Mediaeval History and some Geology

  Another Exhibition in Magdeburg

The Holy Roman Empire 962-1806 - From Otto the Great to the Close of the Middle Ages

Magdeburg is a days tour from my place, involving a lot of driving, but I'm going to share the job with my father who furtunately likes the Middle Ages, too. We plan to go come Sunday.

I still have some pics from last years tour to share, so here's a detail from the interior of the cathedral.

Otto I (the Great, 912-973) founded a Benedictine monastery in 937, destined to be the burial place for him and his wife Editha. In 968, Magdeburg became seat of an archbishop, in this context the cathedral St. Maurice was enlarged and beautifully equipped with antique porphyr and marble pillars Otto had brought all the way from Ravenna in Italy, together with a collection of relics.

During an incendiary in 1207 most of the cathedral was destroyed, only a few items from the interior decoration could be saved. Two years later, a new cathedral was built in the place, the first Gothic church in Germany. The main part of the cathedral was finished in 1363 (took them some time, lol) but the towers were finished only in 1520. Money problems seem to have been one of the reasons for the delay. The Magdeburg cathedral is even today one of the largest Gothic churches in Germans, the main hall is 120 metres long and the ceiling vaults are 34 metres above ground, the towers rise to 104 metres.

The cathedral was badly damanged in WW2 and rebuilt in 1955. Additional repairs are taking place since the German reunion.

The porphyr pillars in the middle of the picture are from the original building Otto I commissioned.

  Roman Spears and Axes

Most of the artefacts excavated at Hedemünden Fort were shown in the local museum of Northeim, a small town north of Göttingen. Photographing in museums is a challenge, if allowed at all, but I managed to get a few decent pics.

Spear points found at Hedemünden

The iron hasta points were attached to wooden shafts. In the right upper corner you can see the iron butt spikes of the shaft end, and the yellowish one in the middle of the pic has been left uncleaned after finding to show what the archaeologists deal with.

Hasta points would be more permanently fixed to the shaft than in case of the pila because those lances are used for stabbing rather than throwing.

Same display seen from the other side

The three points in the middle are classified as iaculum points. Iacula were smaller javelins used by the cavalry. The exhibit to the very right is a spear point as it would look like when it comes fresh out of the earth. TV documentaries showing archaeologists digging out shiny stuff are always edited for the public. Those artefacts need professional cleaing and conservation first.

To the left is the drawing of a fully equipped 1st century legionary (taken from one of the tablets at Hedemünden). They were called 'Marius' Mules' after the consul Gaius Marius (175 - 86 BC) who restructured the Roman army and standardised the equipment. Note that during Marius' time the soldiers would still have been wearing a mail shirt; the lorica segmentata came into fashion only in the first century AD.

The legionary is equipped with the traditional two pila, and you can clearly see the points differ from the hasta ones. The pilum has a solid pyramidal point at the end of a slender iron shank; the shank is then attached to the wooden haft. The idea is that, when thrown, the pilum will continue to penetrate whatever it hits, to a greater depth than a spear. It may even punch through a shield and continue into the body of the shield-bearer. Nice, eh?"

Oh yes, very nice - depending what side you're on. *grin*

The points are also designed to break off the shaft after they got stuck which makes removal even more difficult.

Here is a more recent post about pila, showing a display of pilum points.

Below are some photos of doloabrae. A dolabra is a so called pioneer axe, used to fell trees and such, though it could also be used as weapon if needs be. What is left nowadays are the iron parts; the wooden handles usually have decayed. But the design hasn't changed much over times.

Dolabrae (left) and part of a shovel blade (right) from the Hedemünden finds.

Shovels were needed for digging trenches which formed part of Roman forts and marching camps. It is amazing to imagine that the Romans - according to the sources - on the first night of the Varus battle, after the German attack had already begun albeit not yet full scale, still managed to build a proper marching camp complete with entrenchments and walls. Says something about Roman discipline.


The pic shows some pioneer axes from the Hedemünden finds that were presented in an exhibition in Hannoversch-Münden in 2009 - the year of the 2000 year anniversary of the Varus battle.

  69 Operas in 5 Genres

Composed in 25 years. Not to mention a nice collection of chamber music, a few symphonies, and a bunch of religious works (masses, requiems, etc.).

That's the output of Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848). Makes even Sheila look slow. *grin*

Donizetti's first work that has come to us in complete manuscript is Enrico di Borgogna from 1818. His last opera was Dom Sébastien in 1843; the last years of his life he spent in hospital, suffering from what today is thought to have been syphilis.

Some of the operas are shorter, one act pieces (novellas or novelettes) that were played before the main opera by someone else. An evening at the theatre was a society event and general fun, a lot louder than today. And the public was more fickle than some Amazon reviewers.

But most of Donizetti's operas are full fledged novels in the 80-120K range, a few even longer. Also, he had to deal with an Italian censorship which makes the banned book lists of schools in Planet Utah look tolerant.
You couldn't kill a king in an opera, adultery was bad (both influenced fe. the libretto of Ugo Conte di Parigi), no confession scene onstage (which caused troubles for Maria Stuarda), and you could never know what else the censors might come up with.

His genres were:
  • farsa - the shorter pieces I mentioned, of lighthearted content (with an exception, Elvida is a short opera but rather dramatic albeit with happy end)
  • opera buffa - operas with strong humorous elements, though lyrical love is also ok (L'elisir d'amore, Don Pasquale)
  • opera semiseria - operas with a dramatic main plot and humorous subplot/characters, happy end (Linda di Chamonix, Gli esiliati di Siberia)
  • opera seria - the main corpus of Donizett's work, operas with lots of drama, betrayal, unrequited love and usually at least one dead character at the end, his best known is Lucia di Lammermoor (a few have a deus-ex-machina sort of happy ending after all the drama, like L'esule di Roma)
  • grande opéra - operas with drama and unhappy endings that follow the special conditions of the Opéra in Paris, fe. they must include a ballett (Dom Sébastien)

  • Donizetti also rewrote some Italian operas for Paris or the other way round (La Favorita).

    Composers were badly paid (does that sound familiar?) and had almost no copyright protection. To make a living as composer, most of them had to write more than they felt up to (Verdi would later call the times when was obliged to come up with at least one opera a year as his 'galley slave years'). Donizetti doesn't seem to have had problems with the high output but as we've seen, it took its toll later in his life.

    Many composers are forgotten today, their work gathering dust in archives and seldom being revived (like Callas did for Cherubini's Medea). Some, like Donizetti, managed to write a few operas that became so popular they were restaged (usually an opera played only one season in Italy) and still have their place in the theatres today. Rossini is another of those who has a way larger backlist than the popular Il Barbiere di Seviglia.

    In case of Donizetti it was mostly the opere buffe L'elisir d'amore and Don Pasquale, as well as the opera seria Lucia di Lammermoor that survived. Maria Callas already dug out Anna Bolena, an opera seria with lots of coloratura singing and great drama that would let her shine as singer/actress. The Turkish soprano Leyla Gencer revived Maria Stuarda, Roberto Devereux and Belisario, and thus since the 60ies there was some interest in the unknown Donizetti. In the 80ies, Edita Gruberova staged Roberto Devereux and Linda di Chamonix (both were shown in German TV). The interest long concentrated on the later, more mature works of the composer, but recently, his early operas have gained some interest as well, not at least as examples for the development of the Italian opera scene spread over several towns in the early 19th century (Naples, Milan, Venice, Rome, etc.).

    More than half of his oeuvre is avaliable on CD today (some thanks to Opera Rara who have recorded, among others, the early Elvida and Gabriella di Vergy). I now have 24 and I'm going to get my hands on everything I can find, except the above named farsa ones.

    Next time: fun for our Edward fans: L'assedio di Calais (The Siege of Calais - ok, it's Edward III but still an interesting opera)

    The Lost Fort is a travel journal and history blog based on my travels in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and other places. It includes essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, as well as some geology, illustrated with photos of old castles and churches, Roman remains, and beautiful landscapes.

    All texts (except comments by guests) and photos (if no other copyright is noted) on this blog are copyright of Gabriele Campbell.
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    Location: Germany

    I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account. :-)

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    Visiting Historical Sites

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    Roman Remains
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    Mediaeval Places
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    Other Times

    Roman Remains

    The Romans at War

    Different Frontiers, Yet Alike
    Exercise Halls
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    Cavalry Barracks

    Roman Ships
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    Life and Religion

    Religious Sites
    The Mithraeum of Brocolita
    Mithras Altars in Germania
    A Roman Memorial Stone


    Attempts at Conquest

    Romans at Lippe and Ems
    Anniversary Exhibitions in Haltern am See
    Varus Statue, Haltern am See

    Romans at the Weser
    The Roman Camp at Hedemünden
    Weapon Finds

    The Limes and its Forts

    Limes Fort Osterburken
    The Discovery
    The Cohort castellum
    The Annex Fort
    The Garrisons

    Limes Fort Saalburg
    Main Gate
    Shrine of the Standards
    The Walls
    The vicus

    Romans in Bavaria
    The Fort in Aalen - Barracks

    Provinces and Borderlands

    Romans at Rhine and Moselle
    Boppard - A 4th Century Roman Fort

    Roman Villas
    Villa Rustica Wachenheim
    Wachenheim Villa, Baths and Toilets
    Wachenheim Villa, Cellar

    Roman Towns

    Augusta Treverorum (Trier)
    The Amphitheatre
    The Aula Palatina
    The Imperial Baths - Roman Times
    The Imperial Baths - Post Roman
    Porta Nigra - Roman Times
    The Roman Bridge

    Colonia Ulpia Traiana (Xanten)
    History of the Town
    The Amphitheatre in Birten

    Moguntiacum (Mainz)
    The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna

    Gallia Belgica

    Roman Towns

    Atuatuca Tungrorum
    Roman Remains in Tongeren


    Frontiers, Fortifications, Forts

    The Hadrian's Wall
    Introduction / Photo Collection
    Fort Baths
    Fort Headquarters
    Building the Wall
    The Wall as Defense Line

    Wall Forts - Banna (Birdoswald)
    The Dark Age Timber Halls

    Wall Forts - Segedunum (Wallsend)
    The Museum
    The Viewing Tower
    The Baths

    Signal Stations
    The Signal Station at Scarborough

    Roman Towns

    Eboracum (York)
    Bath in the Fortress
    Multiangular Tower

    The Romans in Wales

    The Forts in Wales

    Roman Forts - Isca (Caerleon)
    The Amphitheatre
    The Baths in the Legionary Fort

    Mediaeval Places

    Living Mediaeval
    Dungeons and Oubliettes
    Pit House (Grubenhaus)
    Medical Instruments

    Mediaeval Art
    The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
    The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
    Mediaeval Monster Carvings
    The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee - The Historical Context
    The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee - The Craftmanship

    Mediaeval Weapons
    Combat Scenes

    Mediaeval Germany


    Medieaval Braunschweig, Introduction
    Lion Benches in the Castle Square
    The Quadriga

    A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Erfurt

    Magdeburg Cathedral
    St.Mary's Abbey - An Austere Archbishop
    St.Mary's Abbey - Reformation to Reunion

    Town Portrait

    The Cathedral: Architecture
    Cathedral: Richard Lionheart in Speyer
    Jewish Ritual Bath

    Town Portrait
    The Gothic House

    Towns in the Harz

    Town Portrait

    Town Portrait
    The Chapter Church

    Towns of the Hanseatic League

    St. Mary's Church, Introduction

    The Harbour

    The Old Harbour

    Castles and Fortresses

    Castles in Bavaria

    Coburg Fortress
    The History of the Fortress
    The Architecture

    Castles in the Harz

    The Architecture
    Power Base of the Thuringian Landgraves
    The Marshals of Ebersburg

    The Harzburg and Otto IV

    Origins of the Counts of Hohnstein
    The Family Between Welfen and Staufen
    A Time of Feuds (14th-15th century)

    The Time of Henry the Lion


    Hidden Treasures
    The Stauffenburg near Seesen

    Castles in Hessia

    Castles in Northern Hessia

    The Counts of Everstein
    Troubled Times
    War and Decline

    The History of the Castle
    The Architecture
    The Castle After the Restoration

    Castles in Lower Saxony

    Adelebsen / Hardeg
    The Keep of Adelebsen Castle
    The Great Hall of Hardeg Castle


    Rise and Fall of the Counts of Winzenburg
    The Lords of Plesse
    Architecture / Decline and Rediscovery

    Castles in the Solling
    Salzderhelden - A Welfen Seat

    Castles in Thuringia

    The Double Castle
    Role of the Castle in Thuringian History

    Castles in the Eichsfeld
    Altenstein at the Werra
    Castle Scharfenstein

    Otto of Northeim
    Heinrich the Lion and Otto IV
    The Next Generations


    A Virtual Tour

    Castles at the Weser

    River Reivers

    History and Architecture
    Outbuilding 'Shepherd's Barn'

    The Castle and its History
    Views from the Keep

    Sababurg / Trendelburg
    Two Fairy Tale Castles

    Churches and Cathedrals

    Churches in the Harz

    Steinkirche near Scharzfeld
    Development of the Cave Church

    Walkenried Monastery
    From Monastery to Museum

    Churches in Lower Saxony

    Exterior Decorations

    Nunnery and Ducal Burial

    Churches in Thuringia

    Göllingen Monastery
    Traces of Byzantine Architecture

    St.Martin's Church
    St.Mary's Church

    Churches at the Weser

    Bursfelde Abbey
    Early History

    Fredelsloh Chapter Church
    History and Architecture

    Remains of the Monastery

    Lippoldsberg Abbey

    Mediaeval Murals

    Reconstructed Sites

    Palatine Seat Tilleda
    The Defenses

    Viking Settlement Haithabu
    Haithabu and the Archaeological Museum Schleswig
    The Nydam Ship


    Other Mediaeval Buildings
    Lorsch, Gate Hall
    Palatine Seat and Monastery Pöhlde

    Along Weser and Werra
    Bad Karlshafen
    Weser Ferry
    Weser Skywalk

    Mediaeval England


    A Walk Through the Town

    Old Gaol

    Clifford Tower, Part 1
    Clifford Tower, Part 2
    Guild Hall
    Monk Bar Gate and Richard III Museum
    Museum Gardens
    Old Town
    Along the Ouse River


    Castles in Cumbria

    Henry II and William of Scotland
    The Edwards

    Castles in Northumbria and Yorkshire

    Malcolm III and the First Battle of Alnwick

    From the Romans to the Tudors
    From the Civil War to the Present
    The Architecture

    Churches and Cathedrals

    Hexham Abbey

    York Minster

    Mediaeval Scotland


    Views from the Castle

    The Wallace Monument


    Central Scotland

    A Virtual Tour
    History: The Early Stewart Kings
    History: Royal Dower House, and Decline

    Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle

    West Coast Castles

    Dunollie and Kilchurn
    Castles Seen from Afar

    Guarding the Sound of Mull

    An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
    The Wars of Independence
    The Campbells Are Coming
    Dunstaffnage Chapel

    Abbeys and Churches

    Inchcolm Abbey
    Arriving at Inchcolm

    Other Historical Sites

    Picts and Dalriatans
    Dunadd Hill Fort

    Mediaeval Wales


    Walks in Welsh Towns
    Aberystwyth: Castle and Coast
    Caerleon: The Ffwrwm
    Conwy: The Smallest House in Great Britain


    Edwardian Castles

    The Historical Context
    The Architecture

    Master James of St.George
    The Castle Kitchens

    The History of the Castle
    The Architecture

    Norman Castles


    History: Beginnings unto Bigod
    History: From Edward II to the Tudors
    History: Civil War, Restoration, and Aftermath

    The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

    Pembroke Pictures
    The Caves Under the Castle

    Welsh Castles

    Llywelyn's Buildings
    King Edward's Buildings



    Castles and Fortresses

    Defense over the Centuries
    Akershus Fortress: Middle Ages
    Akershus Fortress: Architectural Development
    Vardøhus Fortress



    The Vasa Museum


    The Splendour of St.Petersburg

    Isaac's Cathedral
    Smolny Cathedral

    The Neva
    Impressions from the The Neva River

    Poland and the Baltic States

    Towns along the Sea Coast
    Baltic Sea Cruise: From Tallinn to Gdansk

    Belgium and Luxembourg

    Belgium / Flanders


    The Old Town

    A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Bruges

    A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Ghent

    Roman and Mediaeval Remains

    Other Times

    Ages of Stone and Bronze

    Development of Civilization
    European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
    Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

    From Stone to Bronze
    Paleolithic Cave 'Steinkirche' in the Harz mountains
    Gnisvärd Ship Setting on Gotland

    Pre-Historical Orkney
    Ring of Brodgar - Introduction
    Ring of Brodgar - The Neolithic Landscape
    Skara Brae
    Life in Skara Brae


    Historical Ships
    Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)
    The Fram Museum in Oslo

    Steampunk and Beyond
    Historical Guns
    Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg

    - Beautiful Germany
    - United Kingdom
    - Scandinavia and the Baltic Sea

    Beautiful Germany

    The Baltic Sea Coast
    From the Bay of Wismar to Hiddensee
    The Flensburg Firth
    A Tour on the Wakenitz River

    Harz National Park
    Arboretum (Bad Grund)
    Bode Valley, Rosstrappe and Devil's Wall
    Cave Dwellings in Langenstein
    Harzburg and the Ilsetal
    Oderteich Reservoir
    Views from Harz mountains

    Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
    Sea Stones, Kitzkammer, Heldrastein
    'Hessian Switzerland'
    Karst Dolines and Kalbe Lake

    Nature Park Solling-Vogler
    The Hutewald Forest
    The Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

    Rivers and Lakes
    The Danube in Spring
    Edersee Reservoir
    A Rainy Rhine Cruise
    River of the Greenest Shores - The Moselle
    Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut

    Parks and Palaces
    Botanical Garden Göttingen
    Forest Botanical Garden, Göttingen
    Hardenberg Castle Gardens
    Junkerberg Cemetary
    Wilhelmsthal Palace and Gardens

    Other Landscape Sites
    Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

    Seasons and More

    Spring on my Balcony
    Spring at the Kiessee Lake
    Spring in the Rossbach Heath

    Memories of Summer
    Summer Hiking Tours 2016
    Summer Thunderstorms

    Autumnal Views from Castle Windows
    Autumn Photos from Harz and Werra
    Autumn in the Meissner
    Autumn at Werra and Weser

    Advent Impressions
    Christmas Decorations from the Ore Mountains
    Winter at the Kiessee Lake
    Winter Wonderland
    Winter 2010

    Birds at the Feeder
    Harz Falcon Park
    Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
    Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life

    Alien Architecture
    Carved Monsters in Cathedrals
    Llama, Llama
    Odd Angles
    Spectacular Sunset
    Carved Animals

    Across the Channel - United Kingdom

    Mountains, Valleys, and Rivers
    Sheep Grazing Among Roman Remains
    A Ghost Cruise on the Ouse River
    West Highland Railway

    The East Coast
    By Ferry to Newcastle
    Highland Mountains - Inverness to John o'Groats
    Some Photos from the East Coast

    Scottish Sea Shores
    Crossing to Mull
    Mull - Craignure to Fionnphort
    Pentland Firth
    Summer Days in Oban
    Summer Nights in Oban

    Wild Wales - With Castles
    Hazy Views with Castles
    Shadows and Strongholds
    Views from Castle Battlements

    Sea Gulls

    Scandinavia and the Baltic Sea

    Land of Light and Darkness - Norway

    The Hurtigruten-Tour
    A Voyage into Winter
    The Farthest North
    Culture and Nature in Norway
    Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
    Along the Coast - North of the Polar Circle

    Norway by Train
    From Trondheim to Oslo

    Bearded Seals
    Dog Sledding With Huskies
    Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord

    Shores of History - The Baltic Sea

    Beaches at the Curonian Spit

    Delectatio (Fun Stuff)
    Comblogium (Blog Roll)
    Conexiones (Links)

    - Roman History
    - Mediaeval History
    - Other Times

    Roman History

    Wars and Frontiers

    Romans in Germania

    Traces of the Pre-Varus Conquest
    Roman Camp Hedemünden
    New Finds in 2008

    The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
    Museum Park at Kalkriese

    The Battle at the Harzhorn

    Along the Limes
    Limes Fort Osterburken
    Limes Fort Saalburg

    Roman Frontiers in Britain
    Hadrian's Wall

    The Batavian Rebellion

    Roman Militaria

    Early Imperial Helmets
    Late Roman Helmets
    The Negau B Helmet

    The pilum

    Other Equipment
    Roman Saddles

    Life and Religion

    The Mithras Cult
    Isis Worship
    Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms

    Everyday Life
    Bathing Habits
    Children's Toys
    Face Pots
    Styli and Wax Tablets

    Public Life
    Roman Transport - Barges
    Roman Transport - Amphorae and Barrels
    Roman Water Supply

    Roman villae
    Villa Rustica Wachenheim

    Legend of Alaric's Burial

    Mediaeval History

    Feudalism, Beginnings
    Feudalism, 10th Century
    The Privilege of the deditio
    A Note on handgenginn maðr

    The Hanseatic League
    Introduction and Beginnings
    Stockfish Trade



    List of Mediaeval German Emperors

    Anglo-German Marriage Connections
    Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors


    Kings and Emperors
    King Heinrich IV
    Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

    Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
    The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
    Otto of Northeim
    The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
    Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

    Counts and Local Lords
    The Marshals of Ebersburg
    The Counts of Everstein
    The Counts of Hohnstein
    The Lords of Plesse
    The Counts of Reichenbach
    The Counts of Winzenburg

    Famous Feuds

    Local Feuds
    The Lüneburg Succession War
    The Thuringian Succession War - Introduction
    The Star Wars

    Royal Troubles
    Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg


    Scottish Kings

    House Dunkeld
    Malcolm III and Northumbria
    Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
    King David and the Civil War (1)
    King David and the Civil War (2)

    Houses Bruce and Stewart
    Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
    The Early Stewart Kings

    Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

    Clan Feuds
    MacLeans and MacDonalds
    A Scottish Wedding


    Princes and Rebels

    The Princes of Gwynedd
    The Rise of House Aberffraw

    The Rebellions
    From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


    Kings and Vikings

    Kings of Norway
    King Eirik's Scottish Marriages

    Famous Nobles and their Feuds
    Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg

    Other Times and Miscellanea

    Post-Mediaeval History

    Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres

    Fram Expedition to the North Pole
    Fram Expedition to the South Pole

    History in Opera and Literature

    Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
    The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

    Historical Ballads

    Ballads by Th. Fontane, translated by me
    About Theodor Fontane
    Archibald Douglas
    Gorm Grymme
    Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
    The Tragedy of Afghanistan

    Geological Landscapes

    The Baltic Sea
    Geology of the Curonian Spit

    The Harz
    Karst Landscape
    Karst - Lonau Falls
    Karst - Rhume Springs

    Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
    Blue Dome near Eschwege
    Diabase and Basalt Formations
    Karst Formations

    Raised Bogs
    The Hannover Cliffs

    The Shores of Scotland



    Fun Stuff

    Not So Serious Romans
    Aelius Rufus Visits the Future Series
    Building Hadrian's Wall
    Playmobil Romans

    Royal (Hi)Stories
    Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
    The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

    Historical Memes
    Charlemagne meme
    Historical Christmas Wishes
    New Year Resolutions
    Aelius Rufus does a Meme
    Rules for Writing Scottish Romances

    Funny Sights
    Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg

    My Novels in Progress / Planning

    I'm a bit of a writer, too; here are the novel projects on which I'm currently working

    Roman Novels (Historical Fiction)
    The Saga of House Sichelstein (Historical Fiction)
    Kings and Rebels (Fantasy)


    Links leading outside my blog will open in a new window. I do not take any responsibility for the content of linked sites.

    History Blogs - Ancient

    Roman History Today
    Ancient Times (Mary Harrsch)
    Bread and Circuses (Adrian Murdoch)
    Following Hadrian (Carole Raddato)
    Mike Anderson's Ancient History Blog
    Mos Maiorum - Der römische Weg
    Per Lineam Valli (M.C. Bishop)
    Judith Weingarten

    Digging Up Fun Stuff
    The Anglo-Saxon Archaeology Blog
    Arkeologi i Nord
    The Journal of Antiquities (Britain)
    The Northern Antiquarian
    The Roman Archaeology Blog

    History Blogs - Mediaeval

    Þaér wæs Hearpan Swég
    Anglo Saxon, Norse & Celtic Blog
    Casting Light upon the Shadow (A. Whitehead)
    Norse and Viking Ramblings
    Outtakes of a Historical Novelist (Kim Rendfeld)

    Beholden Ye Aulde Blogges
    A Clerk of Oxford
    Historical Britain Blog (Mercedes Rochelle)
    Magistra et Mater (Rachel Stone)
    Michelle of Heavenfield (Michelle Ziegler)
    Senchus (Tim Clarkson)

    Royal and Other Troubles
    Edward II (Kathryn Warner)
    Henry the Young King (Kasia Ogrodnik)
    Piers Gaveston (Anerje)
    Lady Despenser's Scribery
    Simon de Montfort (Darren Baker)
    Weaving the Tapestry (Scottish Houses Dunkeld and Stewart)

    A Mixed Bag of History
    English Historical Fiction Authors
    The Freelance History Writer (Susan Abernethy)
    The History Blog
    History, the Interesting Bits (S.B. Connolly)
    Mediaeval News (Niall O'Brian)
    Time Present and Time Past (Mark Patton)

    Thoughts and Images

    Reading and Reviews
    Black Gate Blog
    The Blog That Time Forgot (Al Harron)
    Parmenion Books
    Reading the Past
    The Wertzone

    David Blixt
    Ex Urbe (Ada Palmer)
    Constance A. Brewer
    Jenny Dolfen Illustrations
    Wild and Wonderful (Caroline Gill)

    Poets and Photographers (German Blogs)
    Alte Steine (Burgdame Eva)
    Durch Bücherstaub geblinzelt (Silberdistel)
    Insel-Aus-Zeit (Carmen Wedeland)

    German Travel Blogs
    Lu Morgenstern
    Sonne und Wolken
    Unterwegs und Daheim

    Highland Mountains
    The Hazel Tree (Jo Woolf)
    Helen in Wales
    Mountains and Sea Scotland

    The Colours of the World


    Past Horizons
    Archaeology in Europe

    Roman History
    Deutsche Limeskommission
    Internet Ancient Sourcebook
    Roman Army
    Roman Britain
    The Romans in Britain
    Vindolanda Tablets

    Not so Dark Ages
    Burgundians in the Mist
    Viking Society for Northern Research

    Mediaeval History
    De Re Militari
    Internet Mediaeval Sourcebook
    The Labyrinth
    Mediaeval Crusades

    Exploring Castles
    The World of Castles

    Miscellaneous History
    Heritage Daily
    The History Files

    Ancient History
    Encyclopedia Mythica

    Online Journals
    Ancient Warfare
    The Heroic Age
    The History Files

    Travel and Guide Sites

    Germany - History
    Antike Stätten in Deutschland
    Strasse der Romanik

    Germany - Nature
    Naturpark Meissner
    Naturpark Solling-Vogler

    English Heritage
    Visit Northumberland

    The Chain Mail (Scottish History)
    Historic Scotland
    National Trust Scotland

    Books and Writing

    Interesting Author Websites
    Bernard Cornwell
    Dorothy Dunnett
    Steven Erikson
    Diana Gabaldon
    Guy Gavriel Kay
    George R.R. Martin
    Sharon Kay Penman
    Brandon Sanderson
    J.R.R. Tolkien
    Tad Williams

    Historical Fiction
    Historical Novel Society
    Historia Magazine

    Writing Sites
    Absolute Write
    National Novel Writing Month


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